THE SELJUK TURKS 115 Some ten years later they were rebuilt, but Christendom had meanwhile been stirred to its depths, and from that time the crusades became inevitable, although eighty years were to elapse before the movement gained sufficient strength for action. The First Crusade, A.D. 1095-1099,—Perhaps the first reply to the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre was given in the island of Sardinia, which was wrested by the Pisans from Islam in 1016. In 1060 the Norman con- quest of Sicily from the Arabs, which took thirty years to accomplish, began, and this may to some extent be regarded as a crusade. In A.D. 1095 P°Pe Urban II. delivered a memorable address at Clermont, telling his hearers how the cries from threatened Constantinople and oppressed Jerusalem were ringing in his ears, and that it would take two months to traverse the lands which the " accursed Persian race "l had won from the Empire of the East. • The effect was instantaneous on minds already prepared, and cries of Deus le volt, Deus le volt, " God wills it, God wills it," went up from the mighty host, which was now moved against Islam as it had never been moved before. Crosses were distributed and Christendom, stirred by wandering preachers such as Peter the Hermit who carried the theme of Urban's sermon far and wide, prepared for the Crusades. The Defeat of the First Army by the Seljuks.—As might be expected, the first raw levies which marched across Europe, massacring the Jews and generally robbing and pillaging, reached Constantinople in very small numbers. The Emperor Alexius advised them to await the arrival of the organized armies ; in the meanwhile, dreading their lawlessness, he transported them to Asia and sent them supplies by sea. The German section of these Crusaders made a raid towards Nicaea on the Sea of Marmora, but they were surrounded and captured by Kilij-Arslan Daud, the reigning Seljuk of Rum ; the same Prince also surprised and cut to pieces the main body of the undisciplined mob, with the exception of a 1 The appeal of the Byzantine Emperor for armed help was actually due to conquests by the Seljuk' Turks, here erroneously termed Persians. It was intended to use the western troops to recover Asia Minor for Byzantium.